Work-related articles

The aims of the class:
-to make summaries of the articles which were read by the students;
-to talk on subjects related to the articles;
-to revise future tenses.

Work-related articles

Each of you is supposed to:
-summarise (say shortly) the two articles you have read;
-explain words/expressions from your articles which you find interesting to know;
-task other students questions related to your articles;

Future tenses - a short review

1.    Intention - I haven’t done anything to make it happen.
I am going to study Spanish. (I just want to do it, I haven’t enrolled on a Spanish course)
I am going to take up jogging. (I just want to do it, I haven’t bought a tracksuit yet.)
2.    Something is going to happen based on this what I CAN SEE or KNOW
Look at those clouds. It’s going to rain. (I can see some clouds)
He doesn’t study much. He’s going to fail an exam. (I know he doesn’t study much.)
1.    Close arranged (planned ) future. It’s almost 100% sure that something will happen, it’s arranged between 2 parties, e.g. between me and another person or institution.
I’ve booked a flight. I am flying to Berlin next Friday. (it’s arranged between me and Finnair – I booked a flight ticket)
I’ve arranged a meeting with Jarmo. We are meeting in the evening.  (I called him and we discussed when we could meet.)
1.    Timetables, programmes etc.
The train to Leeds leaves at 7 pm. (a timetable)
The Simpsons starts at 12. (a programme)
1.    Offers, threats, promises
I promise I will do this. (a promise)
I will kill you./If you do this again, I will spank you. (threats)
Shall I help you? (I/we – shall) (an offer)
I will kill you if you don't tell me the truth. (a threat)
2.    Prediction based on NO evidence
Tomorrow it will rain. (I just think so)
3.    With expressions stating my opinion
I think/Maybe/Perhaps/In my opinion/I suppose/I hope/I believe/I am sure, I will pass my exam.
4.    First conditional sentence to talk about real present situation or possible future (If + present simple, future simple)
If you push this button, the TV set will work.
5.    Instant (quick) decision
A: There is no sugar at home.
B: I’ll buy some. (I made a decision only when I when I got to know that there was no sugar at home)
6.   Invitation, request
Will you come to my party?
Will you help me in the garden?
7. distant future
In 2050 people will fly to the moon on holiday. (in 32 years’ time – a long time from now.)

Will or going to?
 Will and going to are both used for predictions, and on most occasions either is possible.
 I think it’s going to / it’ll probably rain tomorrow.
 However if there is strong evidence in the present situation, then going to is usually used.
 I think it’s going to rain this afternoon, look at the back clouds in the sky.
 Going to or present continuous?
 Going to and present continuous are both used for plans and arrangements, and most occasions either is possible.
 I’m going to have / I’m having a party on Friday.
 However, going to can suggest that the detail are not yet finalized – it’s still just a plan. Whereas the present continuous can suggest that the arrangement is more fixed, with a time and place.
 Jean is going to have another driving lesson soon. (a plan, with no specific time)
Jean is having her driving lessons this afternoon. (it’s fixed in her diary)

Future tenses - exercises

Which sentence is a promise, an offer or a future prediction?
Example I’ll give you the book when I find it. – a promise .
1. I’ll close the window for you. 
2. It will be cloudy tomorrow.
3. I’ll cook dinner tonight if you like. 
4. The town will look completely different in two years’ time.
5. A: Please say hello from me to your family. B: I certainly will.
Choose the correct answer:
1. What _____ you ______ this afternoon?
a) will…doing   b) are … going to do   c) will … to do
2. My sister _will _____ be 17 next month.
a) will   b) is going   c) going to
3. Don’t worry. I _'ll_____ do the shopping for you today.
a) going to   b) am going   c) ‘ ll
4. Will you spend the weekend with us? No, we ­_won't_____
a) will   b) won’t   c) ‘re going
Complete the sentences with will, present continuous, present simple or going to.
1. Promise me that you ___will___ phone me every day? – I certainly ___will___.
2. What __are____ you ____going to__ do tonight? – I ___am going to___ study maths.
3. What are his plans for tomorrow? – He _is going to_____ go to the dentist.
4. Please don’t tell anyone about it. – Don’t worry. I __won't____.
5. If you come with us, you ____will__ meet our friends.
6. We ___are making/make/are going to make/will make___________ (make) leaflets.
7. I hope people ______will volunteer________(volunteer) to help us. 
8. As planned I ____am meeting__________(meet) the Mayor next week.
9.  I expect people ____will understand__________ (understand) men are destroying the Earth.
10.  We ____are writing/are going to meet_____ (write) a letter to the local authorities with the intention of explaining our campaign.
11.  I think the local authorities _will not co-operate/is not going to cooperate_______(not/ cooperate).
12.  The course begins____________(begin) in October.
13.  You can’t come with me. Dad ______won't/is not going to let____(not / let) you. 
14.  Do you have any plans for tonight? – Actually, I do. I ___am going______(go) out with Penny.
Complete the sentences with different future forms
1. You must take an umbrella. It _is going to rain/is raining (now)_____(rain)
2. I _am going_____________ to the cinema tonight. I already have a ticket. (go)
3. Are you planning any summer holiday? - I don't know yet. Perhaps (my opinion) I _will stay_____________ at home. (stay)
4. Betty is going to driving lessons, because she__is going to  buy/is buying (she has spoken with a car seller and signed a contract)_ a car. (buy)
5. I've just missed my train! - No problem. I __will drive (instant decision)____________   you there. (drive)
6. I can't eat anything today. I __am having_______ an appointment at the hospital tomorrow. (have)
7. The Sharks are much better! (I can see it) I'm sure they  are going to_beat________ the Dolphins today! (beat)
8.  What does your son want to do in the future? - I hope he will become_________ a dentist. (become)
9. Not at five o'clock. Look at the diary. We ___are meeting___ Mr. Clark at three o'clock. (meet)
10. My dad has already booked the holiday. We  __are _flying______ to France on 2 July. (fly)

Homework 1

 The present continuous and the future simple

Put the verbs in brackets into the present continuous or the future simple using the present continuous where possible.

(The be going to form could be used here instead of the present continuous, but for the sake of simplicity students are advised to use only the two tenses first mentioned.)


1 I am sure that I will recognize him.

2 I am seeing her tomorrow. 

3 He is playing in a tennis match on Friday.

4 She is coming back on Monday.

5 I am going/will go (instant decision) again next year.

6 We will know tonight.

7 You pay and I will owe you the money.

8 I will believe it when I see it.

9 I am having my car repainted next week.

10 I hope that you will have a good time tomorrow. 

will + infinitive and the be going to form

Future with intention can usually be expressed by will + infinitive or the be going to form. Very often either of these can be used, but when the intention is clearly premeditated the be going to form must be used, and when the intention is clearly unpremeditated we must list will + infinitive.

Put the verbs in brackets into one of these two forms. (In some of the examples the present continuous could be used instead of the be going to form.)


1 The fire has gone out! ~
So it has. I will go and get some sticks. 

2 Did you remember to book seats? ~
Oh no, I forgot. I will telephone for them now.

3 He has just been taken to hospital with a broken leg. ~
I'm sorry to hear that. I will send him some grapes.

4 I've hired a typewriter and I am going to learn to type.

5 I see that you have got a loom. Are you going to do some weaving?

will + infinitive and the be going to form

Both will you and are you going to can introduce questions about future intentions. But will you very often introduces a request or invitation. For this reason, are you going to is more usual than will you in questions about intentions, are you going to must, of course, be used when the intention is obviously premeditated. The exercise contains requests, invitations, and questions about intentions.

1 Will you open the door for me, please? ~

Yes, certainly.

2 Are you going to do the washing-up tonight? ~
No, I think it can wait till tomorrow.

3 I'm looking for my easel (fläppitaulu)

 Are you going to paint someone's portrait?. ~

4 'Will you read this passage aloud, please,' said the examiner.

5 Are you going to eat any more of this, or shall I tell the waiter to take it away?

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