Practical Activities

Practical Activities

To examine Bryophyta
• A mature moss plant is obtained.
• The specimen is observed using a hand -lens.
• A labelled drawing showing structures is made: rhizoids, set a capsule, gametophyte, sporophyte ..

To examine Pteridophyta
• A mature fern plant is obtained.
• It is observed using a hand lens.
• Sori can be seen on the lower side of fronds.
• A labelled drawing showing: frond, pinna, sorus, rhizome and adventitious roots.

To examine Spermatophyta
A mature twig of either cypress or pinus with cones is obtained.
• Observation of Male and female is made using a hand-lens.
• The naked seeds are noted.
• The leaves show xerophytic characteristics e.g. they are rolled, or needle-like.
A mature bean plant with pods is obtained,
• Observation of the leaves, stem and roots is made.
• Leaves are compound, broad arid have network of veins.
• The Ieaf-has a leaf stalk.
• They have a tap root system.
• Floral parts are in five e.g. 5 petals.
• A bean seed has two cotyledons.
A mature maize plant is obtained.
• Observation of the leaves, stems and roots is made.
• Leaves are simple, narrow and long with parallel veins.
• The petiole is modified to form a leaf sheath.
• They have a-fibrous root system.
• Floral parts are in threes.
• A maize gram has one cotyledon,

Examination of Arthropoda
• Specimens of crayfish, millipede, centipede grasshopper and spider are obtained.
• Where specimens are not available photographs are used.
• External features of the specimens are observed.
The differences in the following are noted:
• Body parts.
• Antennae.
• Other appendages.
• Eyes.

Examination of Chordata
• The following specimens are obtained:
• Tilapia, frog, Lizard, bird and rabbit.
• Using observable features each specimen is placed into its class.
Features used include:
• Body covering.
• Limbs.
• Type of teeth.