Farm Structures A

Construction of Farm Structures

Construction of Farm Structures


Planning for farm structures ;


Farm activities.

Size of the enterprise.

Future of the enterprise.


Soil type.

Siting farm structures;


The location of the homestead.




Wind direction.

Relationship between the structures.

Proximity to social amenities.

Farmer's taste and preference.

Materials for Construction

Structural Materials and Use

Factors which determine the type of materials to use are;







cost sanitation.

Stones and Bricks


Stones and bricks are durable, easy to disinfect, resistant to weather and insects decay and are easily available.


They are bulky and require skilled labour to make them.

Plastic and Synthetic Materials

These include;


asbestos fibre

polythene materials.



cheep depending on quality,

easy to disinfect,

can be moulded into any shape,

are durable,

cannot be destroyed by insects and fungus

are water-proof.


Are easily destroyed, fragile,

very expensive require skilled labour.

Wood (Timber)


They are workable, cheap,

can be re-used are fairly strong.


They can catch fire easily, decay if exposed to water

are affected by fungus and insects.


Is a mixture of cement, sand, aggregate and water

e.g. in making blocks the ratio is 1:2:3; one part cement, two parts sand and three parts aggregate.


Making posts for fencing.

Making walls and floor of buildings.

Making gabions and water channels to prevent erosion.

Making water troughs.


These materials are; durable, workable, easy to disinfect, cheap to maintain, fire resistant


These materials are ; expensive,

require skilled labour, bulky,

cannot be reused

Animal handling structures

The crush –used when doing following activities;

  • Spraying livestock to control ticks,

  • milking,

  • examining sick animals,

  • artificial insemination,

  • treating animals, eg drenching, vaccination,

  • dong routine jobs such as dehorning, identification marks,

The spray race-used in the control of ticks by spraying livestock with acaricides

The dip- machakos type, and the pludge dip. This is used in the control of ticks by dipping livestock

Farm Buildings

Factors to be considered in site selection;


Nearness to a source of water


Direction of the prevailing wind

Direction of the sun

Personal whims/tastes and preference

Nearness to means of communication.

Types of farm buildings

Houses for farm animals.

Stores for farm produce.

Stores for equipment, tools and supplies.

Buildings for growing crops e.g green house.

Building for processing plant e.g milk plant.

Parts of a building

The foundation,

The walls,

The roof




struts, tie beam,

rafter batten


concrete floor, foundation wall,

PVC sheet (damp-proof course) the compacted fill (hard core).


Importance of Fence in a Farm

Keep out intruders to the farm,

Define the boundary lines of the farm.

Paddocking of fields to make rotational grazing possible.

Live fences serve as windbreaks.

Fences are used in mixed farmi ng to protect crops from. damage by livestock. Fences add aesthetic values to the farm.

It is easy to control breeding.

It is easy to isolate sick animals from the rest of the herd.

Types of Fences

Dead fences.

Barbed wire fences.

Electric fence.

Concrete fence.

Chicken wire fence (mesh wire fence).

Woven wire fence (chain link).

Wooden fence.

Fencing Practice

Materials include;

  • wires,

  • staples,

  • nails,

  • posts,

  • droppers

  • concrete materials.

Size of posts:

  • General purpose 2.5m by 25cm in diameter

  • Strainer units and corner posts 3m by 30cm in diameter:

Distance between the posts:

  • 3m between posts, 10m if droppers are to be used.

  • 200m between strainer units.

Depth of holes - 60cm.

Gate Posts, Gates and Strainer Units

Gates should be hung on posts separate from the fence.

Mechanical implements for example tractors require 4.0-4.5m width of gate. Entrance gates for pedestrians can be accommodated within the fence.

Steps in Fencing

Locate the corners

Clear the fencing area.

Mark gates, strainers, pass places and standards by pegging.

Dig holes to proper depths.

Fix the standard posts.

Firm around posts or apply concrete.

Fix wires on posts.

Fix the droppers.


Farm structures are physical constructions on the farm used to increase efficiency in production. käyttää vain välttämättömiä evästeitä istunnon ylläpitämiseen ja anonyymiin tekniseen tilastointiin. ei koskaan käytä evästeitä markkinointiin tai kerää yksilöityjä tilastoja. Lisää tietoa evästeistä