Planning for farm structures ;
Size of the enterprise.
Future of the enterprise.
Siting farm structures;
The location of the homestead.
Relationship between the structures.
Proximity to social amenities.
Farmer's taste and preference.
Materials for Construction
Structural Materials and Use
Factors which determine the type of materials to use are;
Stones and Bricks
Stones and bricks are durable, easy to disinfect, resistant to weather and insects decay and are easily available.
They are bulky and require skilled labour to make them.
Plastic and Synthetic Materials
cheep depending on quality,
easy to disinfect,
can be moulded into any shape,
cannot be destroyed by insects and fungus
Are easily destroyed, fragile,
very expensive require skilled labour.
They are workable, cheap,
can be re-used are fairly strong.
They can catch fire easily, decay if exposed to water
are affected by fungus and insects.
Is a mixture of cement, sand, aggregate and water
e.g. in making blocks the ratio is 1:2:3; one part cement, two parts sand and three parts aggregate.
Making posts for fencing.
Making walls and floor of buildings.
Making gabions and water channels to prevent erosion.
Making water troughs.
These materials are; durable, workable, easy to disinfect, cheap to maintain, fire resistant
These materials are ; expensive,
require skilled labour, bulky,
cannot be reused
Animal handling structures
The crush –used when doing following activities;
- Spraying livestock to control ticks,
- examining sick animals,
- artificial insemination,
- treating animals, eg drenching, vaccination,
- dong routine jobs such as dehorning, identification marks,
The spray race-used in the control of ticks by spraying livestock with acaricides
The dip- machakos type, and the pludge dip. This is used in the control of ticks by dipping livestock
Farm structures are physical constructions on the farm used to increase efficiency in production.
Factors to be considered in site selection;
Nearness to a source of water
Direction of the prevailing wind
Direction of the sun
Personal whims/tastes and preference
Nearness to means of communication.
Types of farm buildings
Houses for farm animals.
Stores for farm produce.
Stores for equipment, tools and supplies.
Buildings for growing crops e.g green house.
Building for processing plant e.g milk plant.
Parts of a building
struts, tie beam,
concrete floor, foundation wall,
PVC sheet (damp-proof course) the compacted fill (hard core).
Importance of Fence in a Farm
Keep out intruders to the farm,
Define the boundary lines of the farm.
Paddocking of fields to make rotational grazing possible.
Live fences serve as windbreaks.
Fences are used in mixed farmi ng to protect crops from. damage by livestock. Fences add aesthetic values to the farm.
It is easy to control breeding.
It is easy to isolate sick animals from the rest of the herd.
Types of Fences
Barbed wire fences.
Chicken wire fence (mesh wire fence).
Woven wire fence (chain link).
- concrete materials.
Size of posts:
- General purpose 2.5m by 25cm in diameter
- Strainer units and corner posts 3m by 30cm in diameter:
Distance between the posts:
- 3m between posts, 10m if droppers are to be used.
- 200m between strainer units.
Depth of holes - 60cm.
Gate Posts, Gates and Strainer Units
Gates should be hung on posts separate from the fence.
Mechanical implements for example tractors require 4.0-4.5m width of gate. Entrance gates for pedestrians can be accommodated within the fence.
Steps in Fencing
Locate the corners
Clear the fencing area.
Mark gates, strainers, pass places and standards by pegging.
Dig holes to proper depths.
Fix the standard posts.
Firm around posts or apply concrete.
Fix wires on posts.
Fix the droppers.